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Frontend Development

Strategies to Build React Apps in a Client-Side Architecture

Meta's Hemanth Murali uses React to help build highly performant apps for 3 billion Facebook users; here he shares strategies from his work.
Nov 13th, 2023 8:54am by
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This is a guest article from Hemanth Murali, who works as a software engineer at Meta (the company that created React).

In the dynamic domain of web development, optimal performance and user experience are foundational to the success of modern web applications. React, the JavaScript library released by Facebook, has become an essential tool for developers, enabling them to construct applications that are both highly interactive and responsive when rendered on the client side. However, the pursuit of high responsiveness in such applications is not without its challenges — it requires strategic planning, deliberate design, and comprehensive optimization.

During my time so far at Facebook, where I have the opportunity to work on the creation of scalable React applications that now reach billions of users, it is evident that client-side rendering plays a pivotal role in the React ecosystem. But this is not to oversimplify the narrative; the decision between client-side rendering and other methods is nuanced and hinges on the specific needs of the application.

As we delve deeper into the intricacies of rendering strategies, our focus will be on unveiling techniques that can enhance the responsiveness of web applications. Our goal is to ensure that users are met with a seamless and engaging experience with each interaction.

Rendering Strategies: Client-Side vs. Server-Side

In any discussion about building responsive web applications with React, a deep dive into the two dominant rendering strategies — client-side rendering (CSR) and server-side rendering (SSR) — is essential. Both have their unique strengths and weaknesses, and understanding these can guide developers in choosing the right approach for their project requirements.

Client-Side Rendering (CSR)

CSR has been the de facto standard for many modern single-page applications (SPAs). When a user visits a CSR-based web application, they are served a shell of an HTML page, which then uses JavaScript to load the content. The heavy lifting of rendering the webpage is done in the user’s browser.


  • Rich Interactions: CSR allows for dynamic content manipulation without the need for full-page reloads, leading to a smooth, app-like user experience.
  • Development Efficiency: With CSR, developers can take full advantage of the React ecosystem and its state management capabilities to build complex applications more easily.
  • Improved Performance After Initial Load: Once the application is loaded, navigating between pages is fast, since only data — not HTML — is exchanged and rendered.


  • Slow Initial Load Time: The initial load might be slow, because the entire app needs to be downloaded before it can be displayed.
  • SEO Considerations: Though improved, CSR can still present challenges for search engine optimization, as crawlers might have difficulty parsing JavaScript-generated content.
  • Browser Resource Intensive: Older devices and browsers may struggle with the processing required to initialize and render the application.

Server-Side Rendering (SSR)

SSR, on the other hand, generates the full HTML content on the server for each request, sending a fully rendered page to the client. This is a traditional method of rendering web pages and can offer significant performance benefits.


  • SEO Friendly: Search engines receive a fully rendered page, which can improve indexing and potentially result in better search rankings.
  • Quick First Paint: Users see a fully rendered page more quickly, which can enhance the perception of performance, particularly on slower networks or devices.
  • Reduced Browser Workload: Because the server does the initial rendering, there is less work for the client to do, improving the experience on less capable devices.


  • Higher Server Load: SSR can increase the workload on your server, as it has to generate content for each request.
  • Complex Caching: Effective caching strategies become more important and complex to prevent the server from rendering the same content over and over.
  • Delayed Interactivity: The full HTML is visible quickly, but the page can’t be interacted with until the JavaScript needed for the page’s functionality finishes loading.

Strategies for a Responsive Client-Side Rendered React Application

Now, let’s shift the focus to strategies aimed specifically at enhancing responsiveness in a CSR React application.

Efficient Data Fetching with Lazy Loading

One of the foundational techniques in enhancing client-side rendered React applications is lazy loading. This strategy is centered on the principle of loading data and components only at the point they are required, which is crucial for maintaining high performance, especially in applications with heavy content.

How Lazy Loading Works:

In practice, lazy loading defers the retrieval of non-critical resources at page load time. Instead, these resources are fetched at the moment they are needed, thereby reducing the initial load time and saving bandwidth. This approach is implemented effectively on platforms like Facebook, where a post’s likes and comments are not immediately fetched from the server. The details are loaded only when the user expresses interest by clicking on the comments section.

During the period when the requested data is being fetched, Facebook employs what’s known as “glimmer” effects — sleek and modern loaders that give users a visual cue that content is on its way. These placeholders keep users informed of the loading process without breaking the continuity of their experience. Once the data arrives, the glimmer is replaced with actual content, ensuring a smooth transition for the user.

Advantages of Lazy Loading:

  • Improved Initial Load Performance: By loading only the essential data initially, the perceived load time is significantly reduced, making the application feel snappier.
  • Bandwidth Conservation: Lazy loading means less data is consumed on initial page loads, which can be particularly beneficial for users with limited data plans.
  • Memory Efficiency: It helps in managing resource allocation more effectively, as only necessary data is loaded and held in memory.

Implementing Lazy Loading in React:

React offers built-in support for component-level lazy loading through the React.lazy function and Suspense component. These allow developers to render a dynamic import as a regular component, facilitating an easier implementation of the lazy loading pattern.

Lazy loading represents a crucial aspect of modern web development, particularly in the context of building responsive client-side rendered applications. By adopting this strategy, developers can greatly enhance the user experience by delivering content in a strategic and resource-efficient manner.

Single Responsibility Principle for Component Design

A second pivotal strategy in creating responsive client-side rendered React applications is adhering to the Single Responsibility Principle (SRP). This principle, one of the core tenets of solid software design, dictates that a component should have one, and only one, reason to change, meaning it should take on one responsibility.

Application in React Development:

In the context of React, SRP means that each component in the application is tasked with managing a single aspect of the interface or functionality. This modular approach to component construction not only promotes cleaner and more maintainable code but also enhances performance by facilitating smaller, more manageable chunks of work for each component.

How SRP Improves Loading Efficiency:

When SRP is applied, the loading of a page is not a single, monolithic process but rather a collection of small, independent operations. This granularity allows for more precise loading scenarios. For instance, a complex page can be broken down into individual components such as a navigation bar, a user profile card, a feed list, and so on. Each of these components can independently determine how and when to fetch and render its data, often resulting in parallel loading operations that save time.

Combining SRP with lazy loading enhances application performance substantially. As each component is responsible for its own loading, it can be lazily loaded exactly when needed. This way, not only is the initial page load lightened, but subsequent navigations also benefit from on-demand loading, drastically cutting down wait times for users.

Advantages of SRP in Client-Side Rendering:

  • Focused Components: Components become easier to understand, test, and maintain when they focus on a single task.
  • Scalable Architecture: SRP leads to a more scalable codebase, as components can be reused and refactored independently.
  • Reduced Complexity: The application’s complexity is lowered as behaviors are encapsulated within dedicated components.

Implementing SRP in React:

To implement SRP, React developers should:

  • Break down UIs into the smallest functional components.
  • Ensure each component manages its own state and logic when possible.
  • Use React’s Context API or state management libraries for cross-component communication when necessary to keep components decoupled.

Incorporating the Single Responsibility Principle into React component design has far-reaching implications for performance. It enables the construction of an application that not only loads efficiently but is also easier to navigate and iterate upon from a development standpoint. This strategic approach to component management is essential for developers seeking to build highly responsive client-side rendered applications.

Code Splitting for Enhanced Performance

The third potent strategy to elevate the responsiveness of client-side rendered React applications is code splitting. This technique allows developers to divide their app’s code into separate bundles which can then be loaded on demand or in parallel, significantly improving the initial load time and leveraging lazy loading even further.

Understanding Code Splitting:

By default, when a React application is built, it typically generates a single large bundle containing all the app’s code. While this can simplify deployment, it means that users must download the entire application, even for pages or features they may never visit. Code splitting breaks this monolithic bundle into smaller pieces that the browser can load as needed.

Dynamic Import for On-Demand Loading:

React supports code splitting out of the box with the dynamic import() syntax. This feature allows components to be imported only when they are required, rather than at the start of the app. This is particularly useful for large components that are not essential for the initial rendering, such as modals, complex forms, or even routes that are not frequently visited.

Route-Based Splitting:

One common approach to code splitting in React applications is route-based splitting. Each route of the application gets its own chunk of code, which means when a user navigates to a particular route, only the code necessary for that route is loaded. Libraries like React Router can be integrated with dynamic imports to streamline this process.

Component-Level Splitting:

Beyond splitting at the route level, developers can also split at the component level. This can be ideal for larger components that aren’t needed immediately and can be loaded in the background as the user interacts with the initial view.

Advantages of Code Splitting:

  • Reduced Initial Load Time: Users experience quicker initial page loads, as only the essential code is loaded.
  • Efficient Resource Utilization: Browsers download only the necessary code at any given time, which is a more efficient use of bandwidth and processing power.
  • Improved User Experience: Strategically loading code in the background or on-demand keeps the application feeling fast and responsive.

Implementing Code Splitting in React:

To implement code splitting in a React app:

  • Identify components or routes that are prime candidates for splitting.
  • Use React.lazy for component imports, which works seamlessly with dynamic import().
  • Wrap the lazy-loaded components with Suspense to manage the loading state and provide fallback content.

Code splitting is a technique that, when correctly implemented, can lead to dramatic improvements in performance for client-side rendered applications. By ensuring that users only load the code they need, when they need it, applications become much more efficient and responsive, providing a seamless experience that users have come to expect from modern web applications.

Performance Monitoring and Optimization

The final, overarching strategy for maintaining a highly responsive client-side rendered React application is ongoing performance monitoring and optimization. This strategy is not a one-time setup but an iterative process that involves tracking the app’s performance over time and making continuous improvements based on empirical data.

The Role of Performance Monitoring:

Performance monitoring is about collecting and analyzing data regarding how an application behaves in production. It includes measuring metrics like load times, interaction readiness, and runtime efficiency. This real-time insight allows developers to identify bottlenecks or areas of the app that are not performing as expected.

Tools for Monitoring Performance:

Several tools can aid in performance monitoring, including:

  • Browser DevTools: Most modern browsers provide developer tools that come with performance tabs to help analyze the runtime performance of web applications.
  • React Profiler: This is a React Developer Tools extension that provides a visual way to analyze the render performance of React components.
  • Web Performance APIs: These APIs (like the Navigation Timing API) allow developers to gather detailed timing information about various aspects of their application.
  • Custom Analytics: Developers can also instrument their code with custom logging to capture specific performance-related events.

Optimizing Based on Data:

Once performance data is gathered, developers can prioritize optimization efforts based on what will have the most significant impact. This may involve:

  • Refactoring Inefficient Code: Improving or rewriting code paths that are identified as slow or inefficient.
  • Optimizing Assets: Reducing the size of images, minifying CSS and JavaScript, and ensuring efficient asset delivery.
  • State Management Optimization: Reducing unnecessary re-renders by optimizing state management and embracing memorization techniques.

Performance Budgets:

Setting performance budgets is a proactive way to keep performance in check. This involves setting thresholds for certain metrics, like bundle size or load time, and ensuring that the application does not exceed these thresholds without explicit consideration.

Performance monitoring and optimization are crucial to building and maintaining a responsive client-side rendered React application. By continuously analyzing performance data and iterating on those insights, developers can ensure that the application remains fast, efficient and enjoyable for users, thereby standing up to the high standards expected from modern web applications.


To conclude, constructing a responsive client-side rendered React application demands a rigorous application of strategies such as lazy loading, the Single Responsibility Principle, code splitting, and perpetual performance monitoring.

Facebook, among other tech leaders, meticulously follows these steps to ensure that their applications achieve and maintain peak responsiveness. By continuously honing these practices, developers can deliver applications that not only respond swiftly at launch but also adapt and thrive, providing users with the high-speed, seamless interactions that have become the benchmark for today’s web experiences.

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